Monday, August 24, 2020

The influx of foreign worker Essays

The flood of remote laborer Essays The flood of remote laborer Essay The flood of remote laborer Essay Then again, pace of jobless Malaysian increments as Job open door being removed. The business want to enlist remote laborers as they are happy to acknowledge lower pay from local people particularly In the lower gifted Jobs. Subsequently, the Jobs opening for local people are lessening as they need to contend with the outsiders . The weight will be put on the administration as social government assistance costs will be higher. The convergence of remote specialists coming to Malaysia will likewise cause decreased national pay. Presumably the primary driver of their coming is to work and get by. This has brought about immense outpouring of Malaysian cash to the outside laborers root nation and diminishes the benefits of Ringing Malaysia. One significant disadvantage is that the laborers should send some cash compensation back to their nation of origin for their family, rather than spending it. Another point Is that the Increases of crime percentage In our nation. There are remote specialists who come here don't have sufficient wages and don't have a Job for retrain period . Hence, they will confront money related troubles as the average cost for basic items will be the weight. Accordingly, Involving in the crimes happen, for example, robbery, burglary lifting, assault and mobs. Crimes that frequently happen undermine their own wellbeing as well as will influence the picture of our nation. The flood of outside laborers into Malaysia is anything but another wonder. Taking a gander at the worry issues, it is an assignment for the legislature to scan for a system so as to connect with and control this marvel before it become more terrible. Larger part of network consider them as troublemakers who ought to be discarded. Notwithstanding, are remote laborers just have an unfavorable impact, or Is It something acceptable comes in spite of the nearness of these outside specialists? All in all, its essential to have some authority over the utilization of outside specialists and to ensure that utilizing them doesn't disturb the work showcase for nearby laborers . Be that as it may, Malaysia is still needing outside laborers so as to keep up monetary development. Along these lines, the administration assumes a significant job on adjusting the circumstance with the goal that the approach of having outside specialists in Malaysia will have most extreme advantage to the nation. The deluge of outside specialist By similarly lower pay from local people particularly in the lower gifted Jobs. Therefore, the Jobs Another point is that the increments of crime percentage in our nation. There are remote the weight. Subsequently, including in the crimes happen, for example, theft, are outside laborers just have an antagonistic impact, or is it something acceptable comes.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Project Strategy and the Leadership Culture for a large construction Assignment

Task Strategy and the Leadership Culture for an enormous development venture - Assignment Example When building up a procedure for acquisition, it is basic to consider all the components that are crucial to the task, for example, the undertaking destinations, assets that are accessible, the absolute spending plan and the venture length. The evaluation of these elements will guarantee that the group has a customized acquisition plan that contributes towards the project’s destinations. Before any buy is made, the obtaining official must have the option to address the inquiry with respect to why that thing is being bought, and in the event that it is the most financially savvy alternative. All alternatives must be thought of, and, since there are a few things that can be set up nearby, it is critical to think about every accessible choice. A model is concrete. A few organizations sell solid that is prepared for use and is conveyed to the site in trucks. Notwithstanding, the undertaking administrators can choose to purchase concrete independently and blend it at the site for use (Ward, 2009). Every one of these choices must be thought of with the goal that the administrators discover one that isn't just financially savvy yet additionally saves money on work cost, time and utilization of mechanical gear. Manageability is likewise a factor that decides the term for which we stay aware of specific buys. Considering the spending plan distributed, we ought to have the option to decide if our acquirement choice can be bolstered over the long haul. A significant factor in the obtainment procedure is discovering providers. Providers are weighed dependent on different gauges, for example, unwavering quality and the expense. The acquirement procedure ought to be done in a financially savvy way that saves money on the assessed figures. This should be possible by distinguishing providers who are modest. Nonetheless, this isn't the main proportion of a decent supplier.Reliability is similarly significant with regards to picking a provider of decision. A decent provider must have the option to flexibly top notch items inside the necessary time and at a moderate cost; it doesn't need to be the least expensive choice. It is adequate to pay somewhat more

Monday, July 20, 2020

13 Fabulous Feminist Audiobooks And Essay Collections

13 Fabulous Feminist Audiobooks And Essay Collections My favorite way to consume feminist books is having them read calmly into my ears while I drive to work. I get all fired up and everything feels a little bit less hopeless. Feminist audiobooks are like an electrifying blanket for me. When Im feeling stuck, I listen to one, and I start to feel better. I get enraged at injustice and then I get amped up to make a change. Here are a bunch of my favorite feminist audiobooks, including a bunch of bonus reads because I just cant help myself. If you cant help yourself, we also have 100 must-read feminist books, 24 feminist books coming out in 2018,  100 must-read young adult books for budding feminists, and my not-so-accidental month of feminist reading. All the Single Ladies: Unmarried Women and the Rise of an Independent Nation by Rebecca Traister (read by Candace Thaxton) This is sometimes a bit hard to swallow (single women almost always struggle to be as successful as single men, etc.) but so important. Rebecca Traister weaves together the stories of single women through history, noting all the social, political, economic, sexual, and emotional bits. We have this idea that its only recently that women have wanted to live a single life, but it turns out its always been pretty common. Just not talked about as much. Bonus read:  Spinster: Making a Life of Ones Own by Kate Bolick American Hookup: The New Culture of Sex on Campus by Lisa Wade (read by  Callie Beaulieu) I picked up  American Hookup purely for the cover, and it did not disappoint. Lisa Wade teaches a sexuality course and talks to her students throughout their college careers, compiling data along the way. Mostly, everyone thinks everyone else is having more sex than theyre having, so they have sex even when they sometimes dont want to. Its like sex is the only thing people go to college for. Its a wild ride, and an absolutely fascinating look at sex on campus. Bonus read:  Girls Sex: Navigating the Complicated New Landscape by Peggy Orenstein Asking for It: The Alarming Rise of Rape Culture and What We Can Do about It by Kate Harding (read by  Erin Bennett) Be prepared to yell at the universe while listening to this one. Kate Harding analyzes rape culture and muses on the ways in which college women going out at night is similar to men going to battleâ€"everyone stay together. No one gets left behind. I spent a lot of time sitting in parking lots, trying not to puke as I listened. But its a necessary book for every human right now. Its one of the first feminist audiobooks that got me hooked on taking in my feminism through my ears. Bonus read:  Missoula: Rape and the Justice System in a College Town by Jon Krakauer Bad Feminist by Roxane Gay (read by  Bahni Turpin) Hey, have you heard of this woman, Roxane Gay? She writes really great words and has a lot of great opinions on things pertaining to feminism and pop culture. (Beyonce! Channing Tatum! The Hunger Games!) If you havent read Bad Feminist yet, please, listen to it. You wont regret it. Bonus read: Hunger: A Memoir of (My) Body by Roxane Gay Dirty Thirty by Asa Akira (read by Veronica Worthington) Asa Akira is an intimidatingly badass porn star. Dirty Thirty, her memoir about turning 30 in the adult film industry, shows a different side to her. Shes cute and quirky, and, oh yeah, explodes into a feminist rant about halfway through the book. She reminisces on her youth, her early days in porn, some monumental moments in her career, and her fears about being too old now. She talks about being a daughter and how her mother found out about her career. She talks about being married to another porn star, and how she refuses to abide by housewife-y rules. Shes great. Bonus read:  Insatiable: Pornâ€"A Love Story by Asa Akira F*cked: Being Sexually Explorative and Self-Confident in a World Thats Screwed  by Corinne Fisher and Krystyna Hutchinson (read by the authors) This is the handbook I want given to college freshmen.  Corinne Fisher and Krystyna Hutchinson are here with a stellar collection of essays on sexuality in todays world. The book is broken up into sections: Shame, anatomy, sexy acts, relationships, sex ed, and the serious stuff: sexual assault and abortion. Its a great guide for a sexual debut. Bonus read:  Becoming Cliterate: Why Orgasm Equality Mattersâ€"And How to Get It by Laurie Mintz Feminist Fight Club: An Office Survival Manual for a Sexist Workplace by Jessica Bennett (read by  Bahni Turpin) Is your office sexist against women? You need this book. Jessica Bennett offers lots o tips on how to handle situations that arise at work. And she has badass feminist playlists and other ephemera sprinkled throughout. Bonus read: How to Be a Bawse: A Guide to Conquering Life by Lilly Singh Freedom Is a Constant Struggle: Ferguson, Palestine, and the Foundations of a Movement by Angela Y. Davis (read by the author and Coleen Marlo) A collection of interviews and essays from Angela Davis? Yes, please. She tackles police brutality, racism, capitalism, and every issue that starts local and ends global.  Freedom is a Constant Struggle is a great listen for a wide-lens view on social issues. Bonus read:  Headscarves and Hymens: Why the Middle East Needs a Sexual Revolution by Mona Eltahawy The Girls Who Went Away: The Hidden History of Women Who Surrendered Children for Adoption in the Decades Before Roe v. Wade by Ann Fessler (read by Coleen Marlo) This. Book. Ruined. Me. I grew up with the idea that women who put their babies up for adoption did so flippantly because, oops, they got pregnant and didnt want to be a mom. But in this book, Ann Fessler interviews women who gave up their babies, and their stories are all so heart-breakingly similar. Girl had sex for the first time (or was raped), missed her period, started showing, didnt know what was happening to her, got sent off to a maternity home, gave birth, and lived with a secret for the rest of their lives. Some girls simply had no sex education, or couldnt afford abortions, or were threatened by their family if they even thought about keeping and raising the baby. Do yourself a favor and listen to this book. Bonus read: Ten Days in a Mad-House by Nellie Bly Nasty Women: Feminism, Resistance, and Revolution in Trumps America edited by Samhita Mukhopadhyay and Kate Harding (read by  Bahni Turpin) Every essay in this collection blew me away. Cheryl Strayed writes about locking herself in her room on Nov. 9, 2016. Sarah Michael Hollenbeck, co-owner of the badass feminist bookstore  Women Children First  in Chicago, writes about her physical disability and the gaze of strangers, the prospect of motherhood, and the way the election of a bully affects all of us. Nicole Chung writes about living in a country under an administration that sees white people as American and non-white people as Other. If you only choose one book about 2016 to read, this should be it. Bonus read:  What Happened by Hillary Rodham Clinton Trainwreck: The Women We Love to Hate, Mock, and Fear and Why by Sady Doyle (read by the author and Alex McKenna) It may sound strange to compare Mary Shelley, Charlotte Bronte, and Billie Holiday to Britney Spears, Miley Cyrus, and Amy Winehouse, but then again, maybe it doesnt. These women are deemed trainwrecks while the men who act similarly are beloved. We are fed tabloid madness about women, but the men are usually left out, unscathed. Sady Doyle digs into famous women throughout history and finds that many stories are similar, decade after decade. I absolutely loved this on audio. Bonus read: Sex Object by Jessica Valenti We Were Feminists Once: From Riot Grrrl to CoverGirl ®, the Buying and Selling of a Political Movement by Andi Zeisler (read by Joell A. Jacob) The queen of Bitch herself wrote about marketplace feminismâ€"the idea that a movement that used to be about fighting for justice turned into a movement of looking cool and buying T-shirts emblazoned with FEMINIST. Andi Zeisler takes a look at what the feminist movements have looked like, and how theyve changed. Bonus read: You Dont Have to Like Me: Essays on Growing Up, Speaking Out, and Finding Feminism by Alida Nugent When They Call You a Terrorist: A Black Lives Matter Memoir by Patrisse Khan-Cullors, Asha Bandele (read by Patrisse Khan-Cullors) Because if your feminism isnt intersectional, youre doing it wrong. Patrisse Kahn-Cullors co-founded the Black Lives Matter movement and witnessed first-hand from a young age that Black people are among the most vulnerable in the U.S. Please listen to this book. Bonus read:  Pushout: The Criminalization of Black Girls in Schools by Monique Morris What are your favorite feminist audiobooks?   Sign up for Audiobooks to receive the latest from the audiobooks world. Thank you for signing up! Keep an eye on your inbox.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Eating Disorders And Young Women - 1477 Words

Eating disorders refer to conditions where individuals have an unhealthy relationship with food, which in turn negatively influences various aspects of their lives. Individuals suffering from eating disorders eat either excessively large amounts of food or little food that cannot sustain their normal body functions. Such persons can equally be obsessed with thoughts of food and exercises, an aspect that may result in them having distorted bodies. Millions of American citizens suffer from eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating, as well as eating disorders that are not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The most worrying concern nonetheless, is the fact that close to 90% of those suffering from eating disorders are adolescents and young women, the former who are routinely regarded as one of the most active segments of the population (Dancyger et al., 2014). The high incidence within adolescents and young women should note be taken to denote that young men and adults do not suffer from eating disorders. The failure to adequately attend to those suffering from eating disorders predisposes them to serious mental and physical health issues, thereby routinely interfering with their personal, professional and social lives (Mehler et al., 2015). In as much as eating disorders may coexist with different mental conditions, the eating disorders tend to go undiagnosed, implying that only a small number of sufferers obtain treatment for eating disorders.Show MoreRelatedEating Disorders And Young Women1674 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract Eating disorders refer to conditions where individuals have an unhealthy relationship with food, which turn negatively various aspects of their lives. Individuals suffering from eating disorders eat either excessively large amounts of food or little food that cannot sustain their normal body functions. Such persons can equally be obsessed with thoughts of food and exercises, an aspect that may result in them having distorted bodies. Millions of American citizens suffer from eating disordersRead MoreThe Effects Of Eating Disorders On Women And Young Girls839 Words   |  4 PagesEating disorders appear to be something that is more common in this country and ignored. Media portrays people do be a certain body frame and it is talked about who has the right body shape and who does not. This makes it extremely difficult for people, especially women. Media and other people put a huge pressure on women and young girls to have a certain body image and shape to be â€Å"beautiful† or more attractive especially to the other gender. This can be a lot of the times when eating disordersRead MoreSociocultural Factors that Lead to Eating Disorders in Young Women1604 Words   |  7 Pagesto Eating Disorders in Young Women According to the DSM-5, anorexia nervosa is characterized by â€Å"distorted body image and excessive dieting that leads to severe weight loss with a pathological fear of becoming fat† while bulimia nervosa is characterized by â€Å"frequent episodes of binge eating followed by inappropriate behaviors such as self-induced vomiting to avoid weight gain† (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). These two disorders most often affect adolescent girls and young womenRead MoreThe Media Is The Devil s Advocate Of Eating Disorders919 Words   |  4 Pagesincrease in eating disorders amongst women. The media is the devil’s advocate of eating disorders. Doctor Kathrine Henderson researched the history of eating disorders and the media to understand the reason behind its origin. Early studies provide evidence that claims the media’s main focus is on the decreasing weight in celebrities plastered on magazines and many other models and women who are the idea ls of beauty. There has been a variety of studies proving the increase in thinness amongst women in magazinesRead MoreMedia Is The Blame For Eating Disorders844 Words   |  4 Pagesnever be attainable but so many of young women strive for it. Why? Magazines, instagram, twiter, facebook, snapchat. Today’s media has dominated the way young women see themselves. Young women are constantly comparing themselves to Kendall Jenner, Kim Kardashian, or even their best friend. b. Relevance statement: i. Many people can relate to media being the blame for eating disorders because they’ve either dealt with this or know someone who has had an eating disorder due to what the media says youRead MoreResponsibility of the Fashion Model Industry1505 Words   |  7 Pageswhat an average young woman views as an ideal image for a female. If you don’t resemble the images of those stunning Victoria Secret models and Fashion Week models, you suddenly become ashamed of your own body. It is a great life to have with the high pay, fame, drinking champagne on a yacht with famous celebrities and even being on the Vogue cover page. Fashion Modeling Industry has been the most influential source in our young women’s lives. Young girls and young women are seen eating as little asRead MoreThe Causes Of Eating Disorders In College Women1444 Words   |  6 PagesEating Disorders in College Women Bingeing. Purging. Calorie counting. Excessive exercising. These are actions that are most commonly associated with eating disorders, which are psychological conditions affecting an individual’s eating habits. Though these conditions can appear in any age or gender group, they tend to be most prevalent in adolescent women. A large population of these young women happen to be college students dealing with problems such as body image issues, food insecurity, andRead MoreThe Influence Of Media Reporting On Society s Perception Of Beauty1730 Words   |  7 Pagesan image that is unrealistic and unattainable for teenage girls. As such, based upon a macro perspective, the societal roles, status and expectations of young women have been impacted negatively. This paper will analyze how the combination of media reporting, socioeconomics and sociocultural factors contribute to the development of eating disorders as well as how society s perception of beauty has been distorted. This paper will further support the notion that societies perception of a female’s beautyRead MoreSociology Essay: â€Å"How Far Would Sociologists Agree That the Media Causes Eating Disorders in Women?898 Words   |  4 Pagesagree that the media causes eating disorders in women? In this essay I will discuss how far sociologists would agree that the media causes eating disorders in women. Eating disorders refer to a group of conditions characterized by abnormal eating habits that may involve either insufficient or excessive food intake to the damage of an individuals physical and emotional health. Eating disorders include: bulimia, anorexia and obesity. First Marxists would argue all young females in the west areRead MoreThe Psychological Effects Of Eating Disorders1324 Words   |  6 Pages but what women don t realize is that those are all influences leading to eating disorders. Women are strongly affected by eating disorders in North America. Many societal, cultural and physiological aspects contribute to the impact that eating disorders have upon women. Psychological aspect of eating disorder The psychological effect of eating disorders is one of, if not the most influential part of the development of an eating disorder. â€Å"Eating disorders are disorders of eating behaviors

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Concert Intime Is A Wonderful Dance Performance - 885 Words

Concert Intime is a wonderful dance performance which was held in April 9, 2016 at Chapman University. Two directors Alicia Guy and Liz Maxwell, professional choreographers, and talented Chapman students brought audiences an intimate and colorful evening with seven performance pieces. They were Innumerable, Metamorphosis, Children of the Drum, All as One, and And the Winner Is. In each piece, audiences could enjoy a unique story in the past or modern life and a great combination of customs, light, music, and body languages. The first performance piece was Innumerable choreographed by Cristina McKeever. It was based on the famous documentary Numbered by Danna Doron and Uriel Sinai. The story is about Auschwitz prisoners in the concentration camps. Regardless of religion, all these people were tattooed on their arms or chests with serial numbers. There are approximately 400,000 prisoners in Auschwitz, but only some several thousand survivors are still alive today. In order to attract t he audiences, the piece started with a woman’s voice speaking the quotation of Primo Levi, one of the survivor in Auschwitz, â€Å"With time, my tattoo has become a part of my body. I do not display and do not hide it. I show it unwillingly to those who ask out of curiosity, readily and with anger to those who say they are incredulous.† Eight dancers then appeared and danced in groups as well as in pairs and alone. Especially, they displayed a lot of run motions in order to portray the Auschwitz

Internal Security Challenges Free Essays

string(45) " case of heinous crimes is steadily falling\." Ved Marwah Shri N N Vohra, Shri K Santhanam, Director IDSA, Ladies and Gentlemen: I deem it a privilege to be invited to deliver the IDSA Foundation Lecture. Since inception in November 1965, under the stewardship of the late Shri Y B Chavan and the subsequent direction provided by Shri K Subrahmanyam, former Director, the IDSA has acquired a creditable profile. Over the years, the IDSA has played a commendable role in enriching the security discourse and deliberations in India. We will write a custom essay sample on Internal Security Challenges or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is in this context that I propose to share my thoughts with you on a matter of concern to all of us, namely, â€Å"India’s Internal Security Challenges†. India was partitioned in the backdrop of large-scale communal riots, but the partition of the country on religious lines, without taking into consideration its multiple identities, instead of bringing the communal tensions down, in fact, worsened the situation. The two-nation theory created Pakistan, and it still survives on this theory. Pakistan finds it difficult to accept the reality that India continues to be a democratic, plural, multireligious society and that India today has more Muslim citizens than Pakistan. Read this  Chapter 2 – Why Security is Needed The Government of Pakistan has taken upon itself the responsibility of not only protecting its own citizens, but also the Indian Muslims. The power structure in theocratic Pakistan, dominated by the army, the feudal landlords, the bureaucracy and the religious leaders has been able to retain its hold over the levers of power by playing the antiIndia and Islamic cards. Pakistan plays the Islamic card in its foreign policy also. It misses no opportunity to club India as an anti-Islamic country where Muslims are not safe. The continuing tensions between India and Pakistan have a direct bearing on the internal situation in India. They have further complicated the internal security situation. * IDSA Foundation Day Lecture delivered by Shri Ved Marwah, Governor of Jharkhand on November 11 2003. Strategic Analysis, Vol. 27, No. 4, Oct-Dec 2003.  © Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses â€Å"India’s Internal Security Challenges† 503 The management of internal security, therefore, assumes great importance. If the internal security issues are tackled effectively, subversion by the external forces to that extent becomes more difficult. Unfortunately, the rise of contentious politics based on sectarian, ethnic, linguistic or other divisive criteria, is primarily responsible for the many communal and secessionist movements flourishing in India. The presence of hostile neighbours enables the internal conflicts to get external support, which includes money, arms and sanctuaries. The vested interests exploit these conditions to pursue their own agenda. In a well-established political system and a developed economy, conflicts between the various group identities are kept under check as in due course they get assimilated into the national identity. But that has not happened in India as yet, where the wounds of the partition and the colonial rule have still not fully healed. Moreover, the dependence on the government by a large section of our people for their very survival sharpens these conflicts among them. The democratic institutions and the state structures are still not strong enough to fully harmonise these conflicts in a peaceful manner. Violence erupts when conflicting interests cannot be consensually reconciled. The hostile external forces, taking advantage of this situation through subversive propaganda, further accentuate these conflicts. They give material and ideological support to aggravate this sense of grievance to such an extent that a small minority are willing to become tools in their hands to subvert the stability and security of the country. In addition, a number of secessionist and the so-called revolutionary movements are operating in India today. Their goal could be to overthrow the government and bring about revolutionary changes in the structure and functioning of the state, or even secession from the Indian Union. Ever since independence, India has been facing all types of violent conflicts based on religion, caste, language, ethnicity and regional loyalties. Political insecurity further compounds the problem. Preoccupied with the problem of survival, the governments in some of the most affected states are not looking at the problem from a long-term perspective. They have bought temporary peace by compromising with the subversive forces. Such shortsighted policies can have disastrous consequences in the long run. Instead of effectively dealing with them in the initial stages when the problem is manageable, they have allowed these anti-national forces to take roots and spread their tentacles far and wide. When a state government 504 Strategic Analysis/Oct-Dec 2003 is unable to effectively deal with them, instead of strengthening the state police machinery, it rushes to the Centre to hand over its responsibility at the first sign of any serious trouble. It is not surprising that in these states some sections of the police have actually joined hands with the subversive forces against the central forces. If you cannot fight them, join them†. Finding themselves at the mercy of these subversive forces, the people tend to change sides and start supporting them instead of supporting the security forces. It would be wrong to assume that all those supporting, directly or indirectly, these forces are sympathetic to their ideology. Far from it! For most of them, preoccupied with the daily battle of survival, this is the obvious choice, because the police are unable to protect them. Polarisation on caste and religious lines can further reduce the credibility of the police in the minds of the people. The police-politician-criminal nexus can embolden the criminal elements. Their activities can create an environment of lawlessness, where influential and rich people violate the law with impunity. The police is not the only component of the criminal justice system that has suffered because of this nexus. In fact, the entire criminal justice system is under strain. Not all crimes are being registered and those registered are not being properly investigated; and even out of those charge-sheeted, very few are ending in conviction. The conviction rate in case of heinous crimes is steadily falling. You read "Internal Security Challenges" in category "Papers" In some North-Eastern states it has reached almost zero level, where the police have stopped even submitting the charge sheets in the insurgency-related cases. When the fear of legal punishment disappears, organised crime finds it convenient to spread its tentacles. The crime syndicates are finding the new communication and information technology very useful. Extortion and payment of the so-called ‘protection money’ is more widespread than we would like to believe. According to some reports, direct extortion from the government funds runs into hundreds of crores of rupees. Many of the insurgent and militant groups are not driven by ideology, but by sheer greed. Money power is a bigger motivating factor than ideology. Vested interests have developed around these groups with active connivance of corrupt politicians, police officers and civil servants. Some politicians even take their assistance during election times. They have to return their favours when they come to power. This mutually beneficial relationship has seriously damaged the quality of governance in the interior areas. The real losers are the people. The development process â€Å"India’s Internal Security Challenges† 505 gets seriously hampered in a violent environment. When large development funds are siphoned out by this unholy alliance between the criminal and corrupt forces, even the delivery of the most basic services like water, power, healthcare, education and communications becomes a stupendous task. A vicious circle starts. The deprived and the marginalised sections of the society, unable to survive in the present system, get alienated. The militant and extremist forces thrive in this environment. The rise of Left extremism is more due to these compulsions than on ideological grounds. There are media reports about the carving out of a corridor by the Left extremist forces from Nepal to Tamil Nadu. Even if there is no truth in these reports, the involvement of hostile external forces in support of the Left extremist forces to destabilise the country cannot be ruled out. The mushrooming of armed ‘Senas’ on caste and ethnic lines in some parts of the country is a direct consequence of the polarisation of the society. This phenomenon has also affected the police and the administration in general. Loss of public confidence in the capacity of the state to protect their life and property is the primary cause of this dangerous development. Far from controlling them, a politicised and partisan police actually encourages this development. The tensions in some parts of the country, especially in the tribal areas, due to a perceived threat to their identity is not new, but the rise of so many violent movements is a relatively recent development. In the border states these movements become secessionist because of the support they receive from the hostile neighbouring states. The rise of fundamentalist forces is posing the most serious threat to India’s security. Fired with religious zeal these forces have created an entirely new situation. The intelligence agencies in our neighbourhood and the organisations, like Al Qaida, and Jaish-e-Mohammad, are encouraging the so-called ‘Jehadis’ to enter India from outside. After first targeting the border states they have now spread deep inside the country. These bands of fanatics are not only indulging in subversive activities, but are spreading the virus of fundamentalism among the Indian Muslims. The break-up of the Indian Union continues to be the main goal of Pakistan’s domestic and foreign policy. Easy availability of deadly weapons with the subversive groups operating in India has created new dangers for India’s security. With the ‘Golden Crescent’, and the ‘Golden Triangle’ in India’s neighbourhood, drug trafficking poses yet another threat to our security. 506 Strategic Analysis/Oct-Dec 2003 Drug syndicates are generating huge funds, a part of which is being used to give financial support to some of these subversive groups. The intelligence agencies like the ISI are recruiting a number of ‘carriers’ in drug trafficking as their agents. These agencies provide legal immunity for their criminal activities in their own country in addition to giving them financial and logistical support. Internal security challenges are not confined to any one area, but the North-East, Jammu and Kashmir, and the areas afflicted by Left extremism deserve special mention. North-East The Naga leadership under Z. A. Phizo had challenged their integration into the Indian Union even before India became independent in 1947. The Naga insurgency started way back in the early 1950s. Since then the insurgencies in this region have multiplied and spread to many new areas. In this extremely diverse and strategically sensitive region, there are different reasons for the ethnic upsurges and insurgencies in different states. Some seek secession from the Indian Union, some others seek separate states and yet others greater autonomy within the existing state. The number of such insurgent groups could reach three-digit figures. In Manipur alone, more than twenty-five groups are operating. Thousands have died in the insurgency-related violence. Insurgencies have seriously affected the economic life of the region. The whole developmental process is seriously hampered because of this unending violence. One can imagine the plight of the people who are already living on the margin. What to talk of getting a share of the fruits of development, they are deprived even of the most basic services. Unfortunately, unlike Jammu Kashmir, these violent movements do not stir much response in national consciousness. Even serious incidents of violence hardly find any mention in the so-called mainstream media. The geo-strategic importance of the North-East is not sufficiently appreciated even in the security establishment. All the states in the North-East share an international border with other countries and the seven North-Eastern states are linked to the rest of the country only by a narrow strip of land. The lack of physical, cultural and emotional links has encouraged a feeling of alienation, which is being exploited by the nottoo-friendly neighbours to pursue their own agenda. They are giving support and sanctuaries to many of these groups to use them as leverage against a much bigger and more powerful neighbour. â€Å"India’s Internal Security Challenges† 507 The roots of these many insurgencies in the North-East lie deep in its history and its geography. But, it would be wrong to treat it as one homogeneous region with common problems, or social systems and customs. Even physiographically, the region can be divided into three broad areas — hills, plateaus, and plains. The many ethnic groups, speaking many different languages and dialects, who inhabit this remote part of the country consider themselves as separate people with little in common with the people in the rest of the country. The lack of physical, cultural and emotional links has encouraged this feeling of separation. The partition of the country seriously dislocated the old system of communications with serious demographic consequences. At the heart of the problem, however, is the new political consciousness and an urge for asserting their identity, especially among the fiercely independent tribal communities. The partition left the entire region land-locked, and even the old road, railway and river-waterway links with the rest of the country were severed, because they all passed through East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). The new rail link via North Bengal is circuitous and too long and expensive for easy access to the region. The air link is not only expensive, but also unreliable due to climatic conditions. The people have to bear enormous additional transport cost for all their supplies. Another intractable problem is created by the influx of migrants from East Pakistan and now continuing from Bangladesh. In the beginning it was confined to the Hindus leaving East Pakistan due to insecure conditions, but later, because of intense population pressure even Muslims started migrating. The fear that immigrant population will one day dominate them is keeping many of the insurgent and secessionist movements alive. The terrain in this region is eminently suitable for insurgency. The hilly terrain and dense forests provide convenient hiding places to mount ambushes on the moving convoys of the security forces. Large parts of the interior areas have little or no police presence. The insurgent groups virtually control the administration in these areas. After attacking the security force they can easily disappear into the local population. Because of deprivation and alienation, a large section of the people tend to be sympathetic to the members of these groups. It is the alienation of the people that has sustained insurgency all these years, though logistic support and sanctuaries provided by the neighbouring states play a vital role in sustaining them. The dispersion of ethnic groups across the international 508 Strategic Analysis/Oct-Dec 2003 boundaries has profoundly influenced the nature of political conflicts. However, it needs to be emphasised that internal-external linkages originate with the failure of the domestic political and administrative system in coping with the internal conflicts. Secessionist leaders often adopt alternative strategies to achieve their goal. They keep on changing their tactics and demands according to the ground situation. The intensity of the conflict depends very much on how strong the public support is. Ethnicity can become an important dimension of internal conflict when it becomes intertwined with other social, political and economic issues. As conflicting groups go from one crisis to the next, they learn by experience to raise their demands to increase their bargaining power. Political changes that offer new opportunities for personal gain and extending their influence can spark violent conflicts. Even though most of them are conscious of the fact that secession is not a viable option, they keep on raising this demand to bring together the various contending conflicts on one platform. Making common cause against the Indian state is how many of these groups with conflicting ideologies cooperate with each other in their fight against the Indian state. The United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) was born out of the demand to throw out the migrants from Bangladesh, and yet its top leaders are today finding sanctuary in that country. The South Asian ountries have more in common with India than with other countries in the region. They do not even have a common boundary with each other. But this reality has not made them friendlier towards India. History and geography have encouraged negative sentiments rather than positive sentiments about India in these countries. The big powers too have not hesitated to fish in troubled waters. Till the 1970s, China was directly supporting the ins urgencies in the North-East. Strategically, politically and economically the North-East is the most sensitive part of the country and should receive the serious attention it deserves. The ongoing dialogue between the government and the NSCN (IM) is a positive development, but it is going to take a long and torturous route. The NSCN (IM)’s claim on the Naga-inhabited areas in the neighbouring states has created serious complications. The riots in Manipur in 2001 following the extension of the ceasefire to the areas beyond the boundaries of Nagaland are a pointer to the difficult road ahead. The situation in â€Å"India’s Internal Security Challenges† 509 Assam has shown some signs of improvement, but large-scale extortion by the ULFA and other groups is posing serious problems. The NLFT and the ATTF continue to be active in Tripura. They have sanctuaries in Bangladesh. Mizoram is quiet, but there are problems between the Mizos and the Chakmas, and the Mizos and the Reangs. Thousands of Reang refugees from Mizoram are staying in camps in Tripura. In spite of many rounds of negotiations between the Mizoram government and the representatives of the Reangs, so far no solution appears to be in sight. The unending internecine feud between the NSCN (IM) and the NSCN (K) has spilled over from Nagaland to the neighbouring states and even to Myanmar. A number of Meitie and Kuki groups have sanctuaries in the Chin Hills in Myanmar. The ULFA and the Bodo groups have sanctuaries in the forests of Bhutan. There are unconfirmed reports of some sort of tie-up between the ULFA and the LTTE. A number of groups have also come up in Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh. Many experts have called the Naga insurgencies as the mother of all insurgencies in the North-East. The level of violence, however, in this explosive region continues to be high in spite of the fact that the ceasefire agreement with the NSCN (IM) has been in place since 1997. This only goes to show how difficult the road to peace is going to be in this trouble-torn region. It is truism to say that it is not only a law and order problem. It has many other dimensions. No strategy will succeed unless it strikes a right balance between political, economic and security measures. There is need for closer co-ordination among the policymakers. Ideally, there is need for a consensus among the major political parties. The pursuit of narrow political agenda can be exploited by the subversive groups. Many political leaders in this region indulge in double-speak. They mouth nationalist slogans in Delhi but have no hesitation in making strong anti-national statements and collaborating with the insurgent groups in the state. Nor do they have any reservation in changing parties. They frequently hop from one political party to another. In Manipur some politicians have changed sides as many as six times in a year. A chief minister changed his party three times in one month, and his coalition partners three times in 48 hours. A party label has very little meaning. Money and muscle power with active support of the insurgent groups play a key role in the elections. Most of these states are not financially viable. They hardly collect any revenue and depend almost entirely on the Union government for financial 510 Strategic Analysis/Oct-Dec 2003 support. This has caused lack of responsibility in incurring public expenditure. For example, Manipur has created a huge bureaucratic structure with a workforce of almost 100,000 on its pay roll. Over 80% of its total revenue (both Plan and non-Plan) is spent on payment of salaries and pensions. Extortion by the insurgent groups, the leakage’s of huge funds through corrupt practices leave very little for development. And they conveniently put the blame on the Centre for not giving them adequate funds. Through years of neglect this potentially rich region is today the most backward, almost primitive, part of our country. In these appalling conditions an alienated population becomes an easy target for the secessionist propaganda. Jammu Kashmir The problem has been with us since independence even though Pakistan has no legal case. The ruler of this erstwhile princely state decided to accede to India. According to the Independence Act it was for the rulers of the princely states to decide to join India or Pakistan. Pakistan has been disputing the legality of the accession signed by the then JK ruler, Maharaja Hari Singh. The initial hesitation of the Maharaja to accede to either India or Pakistan and the unilateral Indian offer to find out the wishes of the people of the state has given Pakistan an excuse to challenge the legality of the accession. It has been doing everything for the last 56 years to grab this state. It has not been able to achieve its objective through wars with India. So, it has started a proxy war since 1989. Waging of a proxy war fits into the Pakistani designs of bleeding India. Unfortunately, the weaknesses of the state and of the administrative systems have provided Pakistan with opportunities to fish in troubled waters. More interested in perpetuating their rule than governing the state, its rulers have been exploiting regional and religious differences. Anti-national forces thrived in this environment and Pakistan has missed no opportunity to support and encourage them. Over the years it has succeeded in building a proPakistan base in the state. Frustrated in their efforts to gain power through democratic means, some politicians joined the anti-India front, more to put pressure on the Indian government than on ideological grounds. In a state, where the overwhelming population was against communal politics at the time of partition, the fundamentalist forces have managed to penetrate into the secular polity. The many serious problems of the people have to be addressed. It is not a coincidence that Pakistan’s efforts to destabilise â€Å"India’s Internal Security Challenges† 511 he situation in the state received some success only when our own political mismanagement provided it with an opportunity to intervene, as in 1965 and again in 1989. One of Pakistan’s main aims is to divide the polity on communal lines. The attitude of the Pakistani military government is unlikely to change in the near future. But that does not mean that Pakistan should be allowed to set the Kashmir agenda. Moves will have to be made on all fronts to regain the initiative on both political and diplomatic fronts. The proposals made in the announcements by the Cabinet Committee on Security on October 22 are steps in the right direction, but the ground situation does not justify over-optimism. There are likely to be many ups and downs on this long torturous road to peace in Jammu and Kashmir. Left Extremism Making a beginning in Naxalbari in West Bengal and Telengana in Andhra Pradesh in the 1970s, the movement has since spread to many states: Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Orissa. The root cause for the rise in Left extremism is the inability of the states to address the many genuine grievances of the people. The gap between the unrealistic expectations, fuelled by populist rhetoric, and their actual fulfilment has increased and not decreased over the years. The younger generation is no longer willing to put up passively with injustice and humiliation without a fight. The bitterness of the angry young man against the prevailing unjust socio-economic system is spilling over. The older generation is not unsympathetic to them. An educational system which produces unemployable young boys and girls has not helped. Pressure on land has made the task of survival on agriculture more difficult. A callous district administration, especially in the rural areas, a clogged judicial system and feudal attitudes have compounded the problem. The land disputes have multiplied, but the land records and the judicial system to settle them is in disarray. There is a sense of frustration and anger. The most prominent among the groups, that have mushroomed in the recent years, are the People’s War Group (PWG) and the Marxist Communist Centre (MCC) . But it is not ideology and revolutionary zeal that is driving them. For many, joining these groups is the only way to survive. Their main activity is extortion. Huge funds amounting to hundreds of crores of rupees are being extorted by them. What they cannot 512 Strategic Analysis/Oct-Dec 2003 get through legitimate means they obtain through arms and explosives. Their tactics are no different from the insurgents and terrorists. Create terror and extort money. They are, however, not secessionists. Their aim is to overthrow what they call an unjust socio-economic system. But they are in no hurry to achieve their ideological aims as long as they can extort enough money. Corrupt politicians, policemen and civil servants have made their own adjustments with these groups. A live-and-let live attitude is mutually beneficial to all of them. Who knows how much money goes to the extremists and how much goes to the others. The real sufferers are the very people for whom the extremists are waging this war against the state. In public perception a government that is unable to discharge all its responsibilities is more likely to respond when the demand is loud, organised and backed by acts of violence. The many progressive, wellintentioned legislations are not eing implemented effectively and sometimes have done more harm than good by creating more bitterness and frustration, e. g. , the Minimum Wages Act. The marginal and deprived sections of the society are the worst hit. Social and economic factors are important, but even more important are religion and identity. The secessionist movement in JK is politically motivated, but its ideological base is built aro und religious funda-mentalism. Fired by religious fervour, the young recruits have no hesitation in attacking ruthlessly what they consider the decayed political and moral order, which they perceive as hedonistic. Once the instruments of governance are discredited, it is not too difficult to justify their destruction as in JK, the North-East or in the states afflicted by Left extremism. In another sense, however, the aim of all these movements is no different from the aim of legitimate political movements. They too seek to acquire power, measured in terms of exercising influence or control over the people and acquisition of wealth for them is the source of all power. Extortion, therefore, becomes an essential part of their strategy. Their goal and strategy could change during the course of the movement. In the initial stages some of them may only demand economic and political justice or more autonomy in the existing political system, like the Bodos in Assam, but they can take a more extremist stand and demand secession in the later stages. Effective steps to reduce ethnic and social inequalities, disparities in educational and employment opportunities, and for creating an effective machinery for the redressal of public grievance, are absolutely essential to â€Å"India’s Internal Security Challenges† 513 mprove the environment in which extremist violence flourishes. Steps to reduce economic deprivation and improve the delivery of essential services can erode the base of public support on which the extremist movements survive. It is relatively easier to find solutions to seemingly intractable political problems, like in JK, in an environment where people are by and large satisfied with the functioni ng of the government agencies and are not deprived of essential services. More than anything else, it is the economic policies that would ultimately determine the future of these movements. A thriving economy, which gives hope and opportunity to the people, is more likely to defeat all types of extremist movements than any other strategy. The need for a well co-ordinated security apparatus can hardly be overemphasised. It should include the police, the paramilitary forces, the army and the intelligence agencies. A composite force on the lines of the National Security Guards (NSG) should be organised in all the states, even in those states where the internal security situation is not so serious. It is easier to deal with the problems at the initial stages, than later, when the state police is no longer able to cope with them. But in the states where the situation has gone beyond their control, the Centre, as laid down in the Constitution, is duty-bound to intervene, notwithstanding the fact that law and order is under the State List. The Union government is charged with the responsibility of protecting the states from internal disturbances under Article 353 of the Constitution, even though law and order comes under List-II, the State List. The Union government can issue directions to the state under Articles 257-258. Action for non-compliance of the directions from the Union government can be taken under Article 365. A state government can be dismissed under Article 356, if a situation arises in which the administration of the state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. A national emergency can be declared under Article 352. But, even if the Centre decides to intervene, the state’s role cannot be minimised. The primary responsibility to deal with the security challenges must rest with the state governments. A situation should not be allowed to develop where the state government washes its hands off, or its forces instead of cooperating with the central forces, actually work against them. The many internal security challenges can be met effectively only with full cooperation between the central and the state governments. The police, 514 Strategic Analysis/Oct-Dec 2003 the paramilitary forces, the army and all the intelligence agencies must act in close co-ordination. The hostile foreign forces can and will take advantage of the internal situation to destabilise the country in pursuit of their own agenda. All serious internal security problems: communal and sectarian violence, organised crime, drug-trafficking, labour and students’ unrest, political violence and even economic crimes, if not checked effectively can develop an external dimension. There is an urgent need to make the police and the paramilitary forces more professional. The emphasis has to shift from ‘more numbers’ to ‘more professionally trained forces’. The internal security problems should not be treated as merely law and order problems. They have to be dealt with comprehensively in all their dimensions and at all levels — political, economic and social. They are all interlinked. At times, the required measures will conflict with each other. Going too far in one direction could be counter-productive. The security requirements have to be met, but that does not mean giving the security agencies a free hand. Striking the right balance is the key to success in meeting these challenges effectively. We need a comprehensive security policy that will be implemented effectively at all levels. Ladies and Gentlemen, I thank you for your indulgence. It has been my endeavour to offer a personal perspective on the nature of the internal security challenges that India currently faces. I hope these thoughts and observations would encourage greater deliberations amongst you. From this interaction we could perhaps distil a collective perspective that would be relevant both to the policy makers and the civil society. And finally, my best wishes to the entire IDSA fraternity on this occasion — and may your stature grow. How to cite Internal Security Challenges, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Lecture Review Visions of the Demimonde Albert Tucker in Paris

Art has a wonderful peculiarity to touch upon the hearts of lots of people. It does not matter whether you are fond of painting or have no ideas of what this or that painting is all about, any piece of art will certainly touch you and help to look at the world in a different way. The only thing needed is time to comprehend the essence of the work.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Lecture Review: Visions of the Demimonde: Albert Tucker in Paris specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some people do not have a great opportunity to create own masterpieces, certain personal or social troubles may cause such an inability. This is why such people have nothing to do but analyze and talk about the works created by the other painters. However, sometimes, people just do feel like creating something their own. In such cases, analyzes and explanations of the material to other people are one of the best decisions. Almost t he same situation happened to Lesley Harding, a wonderful writer and art critique. She has written several wonderful lectures about the works of Albert Tucker. One of her best-known lectures was Visions of the Demimonde: Albert Tucker in Paris written in 2006. This lecture is about one piece of life of such a great Australian painter, Albert Tucker, spent in Paris. If Paris has an ability to change people’s lives, the life and visions of Tucker have been changed considerably during his travel to Paris. These changes were noticeable both in his works and in his relations with other people. Lesley Harding creates a captivating story that reflects the condition and consequences of Tucker’s presence in Paris. Lesley Harding is a curator of the Tucker’s Collection and Archive at Heide Museum of Modern Art placed in Melbourne. This person is known for her desire to learn more and more in order to share her knowledge with the others, who do not have an opportunity to s tudy Art and Graphic Design in a proper way. After she gets a proper education in Art, she does not want to stop. Now, she undertakes a PhD in Art History in the Melbourne University. During some period of time, Lesley Harding was a curator at the Victorian Arts Centre, and before her marriage, she was a curator in Sydney (the National Art School). Her lectures about the works and life of Albert Tuckers are not difficult to comprehend. Illustrative examples of painter’s works, bright facts from his life, his connections and relations with different people, and his personal attitude to the events – each of these points makes Harding’s lectures captivating and interesting to listen and even to read.Advertising Looking for critical writing on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Harding’s lecture Visions of Demimonde: Albert Tucker in Paris, the object of her story was Albert Tucker, an A ustralian artist and Expressionist, a refugee from the Australian culture, as Stephen Alomes said. Harding tries to not to start her lecture with a concrete place and time. She wants to prepare readers and listeners to her story about Tucker’s life and work in Paris. She mentions that, for that period of time, Tucker was a great painter with a proper understanding of Australia’s landscape and the inhabitants. (Harding 2006) In this way, she underlines that the world that was offered to Tucker was a bit different to that one he used to live. Paris, with its freedom to move and feel was a real novelty for the artist. There are several major points Lesley Harding describes in her work: (1) Tucker’s adventures before Paris, to be more exact, his arrival to London, (2) Tucker’s attitude to lighter elements, which were inherent to Paris painting, (3) Tucker’s works, which were associated with more vivid cacophony of life, and (4) his friendship with Dick son and their return to Paris in 1951. These major points create a strong outline of the lecture presented by Lesley Harding. This article is not only about the Tucker’s works in Paris. Harding makes an wonderful attempt to compare his previous works and the reasons why he decided to change his own preferences. In Paris, Tucker realized the broader sense of his place in that continuum. Even more, in order to prove her own words, she refers to Tucker’s words about the sense, time, and place. It seems that the topic of the lecture is indirectly connected to the text. The author names the article Visions of Demimonde: Albert Tucker in Paris. However, in this article, she talks about demimonde’s visions from only one point of view – the Tucker’s one. Of course, his original understanding of the world and this life, his life experience, and emotions may serve as strong evidences to rely on. However, in this lecture, the reader/listener can evaluate Pari s and its style of life by means of Tucker’s impressions only. He created several great works in Paris: Paris Night (1948), Woman and Beast (1951), or Rebirth (1951). In those works, he used ageing prostitutes and other representatives of nightlife in Paris to underline how those people saw the world. In some works, he concentrated on their eyes, in the other works, he add details to their arms, etc. Each of his works was a unique one, and Lesley Harding uses all her attention and imagination to represent Tucker’s ideas and feelings.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Lecture Review: Visions of the Demimonde: Albert Tucker in Paris specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More At the end of the lecture, Harding tells about Tucker’s return to Paris. It was late 1951, when Tucker started the creation of caravan in their hotel room. The inhabitants were really impressed, they underlined that Tucker made gold. Dickson and Tucker moved the creation to the banks of the river Seine in Paris. It was one of the most wonderful works that was known as a ticket for Parisians to the rest of Europe, seen by Tucker. Lesley Harding is a wonderful writer and talented storyteller. Her imagination and devotion to her works and the masterpieces of other painters help to create really fascinating lectures to people with various level of education. If a person wants to know more about the works by Albert Tucker, the first thing he/she needs to do is to listen carefully to the lectures of Harding. She is one of the best curators of the Tucker’s Collection, she knows a lots about his works’ creation, and also, she is aware of the way of how to present the information clearly. The lecture Visions of the Demimonde: Albert Tucker in Paris is one of her best works. This lecture has a clear structure with a logical order of details. She does not jump over the facts in order to concentrate on the essence of the story. She presents enough information, concentrating on pre-history, and invites the listeners/reader into the world of Art created by Albert Tucker. Reference List Alomes, S 1999, When London Calls: the Expatriation of Australian Creative Artists to Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Harding, L 2006, ‘Visions of the Demimonde: Albert Tucker in Paris’, Art and Australia, vol. 43, no. 3. This critical writing on Lecture Review: Visions of the Demimonde: Albert Tucker in Paris was written and submitted by user Grayson Whitaker to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.