Thursday, March 19, 2020
Laser Dentistry essays Laser dentistry is a relatively new form of dental care. Laser Dentistry uses lasers to perform surgery, prepare cavities, and harden dental resins. This use of lasers has allowed dentists to perform tasks with less pain and with improved results. There are many different types of lasers used in the dentistry field. Theses lasers included the argon laser, the diode laser, the neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, the holmium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho:YAG) laser, the erbium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser, and the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. Each laser has different properties, such as wavelength, that allow the laser energy to be absorbed by different compounds. A laser that is well absorbed by water would be used on blanched tissue, and a laser that is well absorbed by skin pigments would be used on skin or gums. The argon laser is most commonly used on skin tissue because it well absorbed by melanin and hemoglobin. The argon laser operates at two wavelengths of 488nm and 514nm. The 488nm wavelength is used to catalyze dental resin polymerization. This use of the argon laser allows for faster curing of dental resins, and causes the dental resin to have a strong bond to the tooth. The argon laser is also used for laser teeth whitening. One of the downsides of using the argon laser is that the laser requires a large amount of energy to create lasing, and to cool the laser cavity. The diode laser is a useful tool because it allows for a smaller more reliable unit. The diode laser operates at wavelengths of 820nm and 830nm. These wavelengths are absorbed by pigmented tissue. This laser is used on gums and other skin tissue for some types of dental surgery. The diode laser is a very useful laser in dentistry because of its compact size. The Nd:YAG laser is the most commonly used laser in dentistry. The Nd:YAG laser operates at a wavelength of 1064nm. This wavelength is absorbed by both pigmented tissue an...
Monday, March 2, 2020
The 11 Best SAT Books Recommended for SAT Prep SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips With so many SAT prep books to choose from, how can you tell the good ones from the bad ones? Well, not to worry because we've evaluated SAT books for you! This fully updated guide gives you our recommendations for the top 11 SAT preparation books to help you achieve the scores you want. To best outline the differences, I've divided the books into four main sections: Best Overall SAT Prep Book Best Traditional SAT Prep Books for Instruction, Strategy, and Practice Questions Best Books for SAT Math Best Books for SAT Reading and Writing Before jumping into our SAT book recommendations, though, allow me to give you a word about myperspective. Disclaimer: Why Am I Recommending SAT Books? You're probably wondering why PrepScholar, known for its online SAT prep program, is going old school and recommending an SAT book list. As SAT experts who have made it our mission to understand the test and help students succeed, we are dedicated to providing you with the best resources to achieve both your academic and personal goals. If you're self-motivated and prefer using SAT books in your prep, then they can be a great way to learn content, practice strategies, and try out sample questions. That being said, all the SAT prep books recommended below have strengths and weaknesses. Several of them seem as if they were rushed to publication, while others unfortunately don't offer the same level of quality that they did in previous versions. I believe PrepScholar has managed to integrate the best parts of these books into its online prep program while adding the helpful element of accountability. We help you plan out and stick to your study schedule, keep track of your progress, and hone the specific skills and practice problem types you need most in order to improve your scores. With prep books, you can try to customize your study plan to your specific needs too- but with PrepScholar, we do all that heavy lifting for you. Plus, considering the huge gains you can get from it, it's much more cost effective than buying all these books! Since we're not necessarily benefiting from these SAT book recommendations, you can trust that our advice is neutral, objective, and based onboth our andstudents' real experiences with these SAT preparation books. Now that we've got all that out of the way, let's move on to our list of SAT books. Because the best representation of SAT questions always come from the test makers themselves, I'll be starting this list with the College Board's Official SAT Study Guide. The College Board's Official SAT Study Guide, 2018 Edition Price: $15-$20 on Amazon In past years, I told students that the College BoardÃ¢â¬â¢s SAT guide was the number one, critical book they had to have in their study arsenal. Now, IÃ¢â¬â¢m saying pretty much the opposite- donÃ¢â¬â¢t bother! Why? Because you can find all of its material for free online. In a helpful move, the College Board has asserted its commitment to transparency by providing free online SAT practice materials (theyÃ¢â¬â¢re also strongly promoting their partnership with Khan Academy, which offers useful video explanations to go along with official SAT questions). Some students and educators were disappointed to buy The Official Study Guide book only to find that its practice tests were the same exact ones offered online. So does this book offer anything beyond SAT practice tests? It does dedicate a bunch ofpages to explaining the test structure, basic strategies, and answer explanations. Since you can find the majority of this info online, though, I don't recommend buying the official guide unless you really want all the material printed out for you. If you have access to a printer and a working internet connection, IÃ¢â¬â¢d say to take advantage of the free online material and learn about the SAT that way. The total number of tests is stilllimited, so you might space out these SAT practice tests throughout your prep as a way to gauge your progress and determine what concepts you need to study most. In-between these tests, you can supplement with questions from other books on this list. Read on for the pros and cons of the best overall SAT prep book, along with the best books by SAT section. Best Overall SAT Prep Book: Kallis' SAT Pattern Strategy Price: About $30 on Amazon Students and educators alike have reported having great experiences withKallisÃ¢â¬â¢ Redesigned SAT Pattern Strategybook. This book providessix full-length practice tests,addingup to around 24 hours of practice testing. Pros The SAT questions are generally realistic and closely mimic official test questions. Kallis goes beyond the official guide's simple explanations to give step-by-step answer explanations for each question. These in-depth descriptions help you understand any mistakes and fix them for next time- a key strategy forimproving your scores. The book discusses 101 topics youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find on the SAT and offers a clear, focused presentation of fundamental concepts in grammar, literature, and math.Beyond content review, this book gives some analysis ofthe various question types, allowing you to take a more strategic approach to your prep. Kallis goes over the structure, format, and topics covered on the SAT in detail, so youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have a strong grasp of logistics before test day. This review will save you time in having to read any instructions and pace yourself since youÃ¢â¬â¢ll know exactly what to expect on the SAT. Cons While this book does a good job providing realistic practice questions and content review, itÃ¢â¬â¢s less helpful for learning keySAT strategies, such as time management and the process of elimination. Because this book emphasizes a "learning by doing" approach, it doesn't spend a lot of time going over mindset and critical test-taking strategies. This book is relatively expensive at around $30 on Amazon. It requires a lot of independence and self-discipline. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to take responsibility for dividing up the material in the most effective way and designing and sticking to a productive study plan. While the practice questions are there, itÃ¢â¬â¢s up to you to put in the work and make the most out of them. Best Traditional SAT Prep Books for Instruction, Strategy, and Practice Questions The following SAT prep books are of decent quality but have some serious weaknesses as well. The following four books are the best currently availablefor content review and practice problems. Let's go over the pros and cons of each. SAT Prep Black Book, 2nd Edition Price:$20-$25 on Amazon I highly recommendSAT Prep Black Bookfor itsinsightful strategies and test advice.The SAT Black Book, as it's called, was written by Mike Barrett, who's taken the time to understand the test inside and out. In it, he goes over the different types of questions and introduces critical tips, such as how to recognize tricky wording and"distractor" answer choices. Pros This book is excellent for students who want to learn about the structure, format, and tricks of the SAT, and for those who want togain practical strategies when it comes to answering questions and saving time. It can be useful for students of all levels,since Barrettcustomizes his advice depending on your target score. It providesthorough answer explanations for questions on the first four official SAT practice tests. Where the College Board fails to walk you through the steps of a practice problem or explain why other answer choices are incorrect, this book guides you through each question on each practice test in detail. It can help change your mindset when actually taking the SAT. You can incorporate the book's explanations and strategies into your own approach so that you're more confident when answering each question type.While the Black Book is great for strategy, though, it's less helpful for studying concepts. Cons It doesn't have any of its own SAT practice questions. Instead, the book must be used in conjunction with the official SAT practice tests. It refers directly to official SAT questions and gives thorough explanations, especially for the hardest questions. The Black Book focuses on strategy and understanding the SAT, so it's not the strongest resource for reviewing concepts and content. If you're looking to completely relearn sentence parallelism or linear functions,for instance, you'd need an additional resource. Although I find this book to be written in a pretty engaging style, this is entirely a matter of opinion;in other words,Barrett's explanation style and test strategies might not work for everyone. McGraw-Hill Education SAT 2019 Price:$10-$15 on Amazon If youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking for an informative overview of the structure and content of the SAT, then McGraw-Hill Education SAT 2019is a decent choice. At more than 750 pages long, this massive bookgoes over the SAT in great detail, from the number of questions to the time limits on each section, so you can know exactly what to expect on test day. Pros It containsfive full-length SAT practice tests,including one diagnostic test. These are all fairly realistic and include thorough answer explanations for each question. The book's practice questions are realistic and resemble official questions. Specifically, the Math questions feature real-world scenarios you'd likely see on the SAT, with problems revolving around topics such as temperature and selling tickets for a performance. The book isextremely strong in its presentation of SAT Math concepts. It breaks down all the major topics in detail, from expressions and linear systems to less commonly tested ideas such as geometry, basic trig, and complex numbers. It gives you helpful guidance when it comes to mapping out your SAT study plan.Similar to our own SAT prep program, this book suggests beginning your prep with a diagnostic SAT practice test and using it to shape your study plan. It also offers some crucial strategies, such as improving your calculator fluency so you know when it'll be useful and when it'll just slow you down Cons It's weak inreviewing Reading and Writing. While the book goes over the Math section in detail, its presentation of the two verbal sections is more limited and even a little unusual. Its review of the sections ismore conceptual and experimental than it is specific to the SAT. For instance, the book features chapters with titles like "Language of Truth, Truthfulness, and Beauty" and the "Language of Dissent, Criticism, and Rebellion." While these sections might sound interesting to book lovers, they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t really relevant to the SAT- a feature I consider critical when prepping for this unique, idiosyncratic test. Barron's SAT, 29th Edition Price:$20-$25 on Amazon Barron's SAT, 29th Editionis another thorough prep book that offers ample content review, sample questions, and SAT practice tests. Pros The book containsfour full-length practice tests, in addition to access totwo more full-length online practice tests.This gives you tons of opportunities to practice. It offers a diagnostic test, a helpful tool to familiarize you with the SAT, get you into a testing mindset, and help you note any weaknesses you'll need to address moving forward. BarronÃ¢â¬â¢s is very comprehensive and covers most of the topics you need to know for the SAT. Because of its dense format, itÃ¢â¬â¢s typically more effective for high scorers who can engage quickly with the content and maintainfocus throughout. If you can divide up and scaffold the material in a manageable way, there's no doubt you'll gain some valuable practice with this SAT prep book. Cons BarronÃ¢â¬â¢s has been criticized for recycling practice questions from its old booksrather than creating new SAT content, and this problem remains in this edition as well. Simply reusing old questions wonÃ¢â¬â¢t give you a realistic sense of the question types and concepts on the SAT. This book appears especially guilty of this in its math sections, where it alsolacks sufficient focus on algebra- a major component of the test. Some of the questions are overly confusing and have complicated wording.By contrast, real SAT test questions call for in-depth reasoning skills while using relatively straightforward wording. Therefore, the questions youÃ¢â¬â¢ll get in Barron's, while helpful, might ultimately be too hard and not as useful as they could be for your test prep. The Princeton Review's Cracking the SAT, 2019 Edition Price:About $15 on Amazon (and $20-$25 for premium edition) Similar to Barron's, The Princeton Review's Cracking the SAT, 2019 Edition prep book provides a comprehensive review of the SAT,covering concepts you need to know, such as grammar rules and algebraic functions, along with strategies for approaching the test questions and managing your time. Pros It containsfour full-length practice tests and one additional practice testyou can access online (or, if you get the premium version, you'll have access to three more online, giving you a total of eight practice tests!). The book offersthorough answer explanationsfor practice questions, which help you think about how you can approach similar questions in the future and on test day. There's an online component that helps you score your practice tests. Cons The Princeton Review shares one of BarronÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest drawbacks:some of its questions have overly elaboratewording and therefore donÃ¢â¬â¢t match the straightforward style of official SAT questions that well. While the practice tests are helpful, they're not the best representation of SAT questions. Some of the book's content review and questions are too conceptually easy.While Barron's might be better for especially motivated students aiming for top scores, this book is probably more appropriate for students scoring around or below 600 on a test section. Don't expect to have this book help you score much beyond this range. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t break each content area down into as many subtopics as it could, so there's a lack of detail when it comes to certain subject areas. Its style might not be for everyone. This book is a big, traditional test SAT prep book with a straightforward approach. While some students might appreciate or prefer this, others might find it boring and dull. All the SAT prep books mentioned above have both strengths and weaknesses. Combined, though, they provide relatively comprehensive prep in all major areas: practice questions, content review, and strategies. If you're looking to focus even more on a particular SAT section, you'll likely benefit from a subject-specific SAT prep book. The following books are my top recommendations for SAT Math, Reading, and Writing. Unlike his couches, this frogprefers his SAT prep one section at a time. Best Books for SAT Math Books that focus on a single SAT subject oftenprovide especially in-depth prep. Plus, they can be easier to approach than the huge comprehensive test prep books. If you need more prep in one section than the others or are taking advantage of your colleges' superscoring policiesby building up your SAT scores one section at a time, then these books could be great resources. We'll start with myrecommendations for Math prep books, starting with Dr. Steve Warner's500 New SAT Math Problems. Dr. Steve Warner's 500 New SAT Math Problems Price:About $35 on Amazon Dr. Steve Warner's500 New SAT Math Problemsis his most recent in SAT Math preparation.He discusses each area on the test: Heart of Algebra, Passport to Advanced Math, Problem Solving and Data Analysis, and Geometry and Complex Numbers (the College Board calls this last topic Additional Topics). Pros Just like with his last series, Dr. Warner offers comprehensive and clear content review and instruction. This book helpfully arranges SAT math concepts by difficulty, with the easiest being Level 1 and the most advanced being Level 5. This organization ensures that math problems from all the different content areas are integrated; it also allows you to focus on certain chapters depending on your own level. Students already scoring in the 700s, for instance, will benefit the most from studying Level 4 and 5 concepts and problems. Each lesson in this book is carefully crafted, and practice problems are realistic, helping to reinforce your understanding. Answer explanations are clear and go oversome different approaches you can take when solving a problem. As mentioned above, these kinds of multifaceted explanations appeal to different kinds of learners and allow you to carefully understand your mistakes and fix them for next time. Cons While itÃ¢â¬â¢s perhaps unfair to compare this book with its predecessors (which focused on the old version of the SAT), I canÃ¢â¬â¢t help but find ita little limited.The book could be a better resource if itbroke down each content area into smaller, more specific subtopics. Dr. Jang's SAT 800 Math Workbook for the New SAT, 2018 Edition Price:About $25 on Amazon At more than 400 pages long, Dr. Jang's SAT 800 Math Workbook for the New SAT, 2018 Editionis a great (and hefty) math prep book to add to your SAT book collection. Pros By far, this book's most impressive strength is its sheer number of math practice problems- more than 1,500 of them!It definitely allows for a "learning by doing" approach, as you can time yourself and answer practice questions for days on end. Question types are arranged by difficulty level, so you can break them up and customize your math practice depending on your needs. You might start with Dr. JangÃ¢â¬â¢s diagnostic test and then space out the bookÃ¢â¬â¢s 10 sample tests as you prep. Dr. JangÃ¢â¬â¢s SAT math problems are generallyrealistic examples of what youÃ¢â¬â¢ll see on the SAT. The book emphasizes algebra, includes basic trigonometry, and divides questions into non-calculator and calculator sections (just like the actual SAT does). It also offers a strong representation of the concepts, format, and rules youÃ¢â¬â¢ll encounter on the SAT Math section. Cons This bookis like the flipped version of Dr. WarnerÃ¢â¬â¢s book above- lots of practice problems but not a ton of content review. For more instruction, as well as strategies and detailed explanations, you'll need to supplement this workbook with another resource. It has some occasional typos, which can detract from your prep. It doesn't include manytest-taking strategies, such astime management. This book has lots of practice problems that appeal to students of all levels, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s probably not sufficient on its own to prep you for all aspects of SAT Math. PWN The SAT: Math Guide, 4th Edition Price:$25-$30 on Amazon PWN the SATtargets high-achieving, motivated studentswho areaiming for a top score in SAT Math.The book contains five main sections:Techniques, Heart of Algebra, Passport to Advanced Math, Problem Solving and Data Analysis, and Additional Topics in Math. Each category is broken down into its component concepts to teach you the fundamentals tested on SAT Math. Pros The book is written in an engaging, irreverent style,which can help students stay engaged with the material. It has realistic practice math problems, both Calculator and No Calculator,to help you get ready for both question types. Each chapter also provides a list of official questions of a certain type to help you drill specific skills. You can register on the PWN SAT website to get bonus material andwatch video answer explanations that walk you step by step through the practice problems. Cons Its target audience is limited.While this book will help top scorers with strong math skills, it won't be as accessible to students who struggle with math. If you want to focus on gaining foundational knowledge, PWN the SAT isn't the book for you. Although there are works by several differentauthorsto choose from to maximize your SAT Math score, I just have one author recommendation to boost your SATReading and Writing score: Erica Meltzer. Quick coffee break, and then it's on to SAT Reading and Writing. Best Books for SATReading and Writing If you're looking to brush up your reading comprehension skills or knowledge of grammar rules, I recommend Erica Meltzer's books on the Reading and Writing sections of the SAT. The Critical Reader: The Complete Guide to SAT Reading, 3rdEdition Price:$30-$35 on Amazon While studying for the SAT Reading section might seem hard to break down into specific parts, Erica Meltzer'sComplete Guide to SAT Readingdoes a good joboutlining the skills you'll need. Pros It offershelpful strategies for answering questions. While your English class might leave more room for subjective interpretation, the SAT Reading section does not. This book helps you locate the one unambiguously correct answer on reading comprehension questions. In addition to time management and reading comprehension techniques, this book teaches you how to locate and identify key information both quickly and efficiently. It provides useful strategies for approaching paired supporting evidence and data interpretation questions, many of which require you to read tables or graphs. It has a list of common, multiple-meaning words with their various definitions alongside strategies for how to use context clues to uncover the meanings of words and phrases. This book discusses question type so you can gain a better sense of what kinds of questions appear on Reading, such as main point, interpretation of detail, and vocabulary in context. It's full of high-quality questions and passages that resemble what you'll see on the SAT,including passages from US/world literature, history/social studies, and science. It also incorporates questions from the College Board and Khan Academy so you can match up concepts with relevant official sample questions. Cons Not all students are fans of the overall layout and formatting of the book,which has small, crowded font and isn't very creative or engaging. The writing style is all to the point. Some people appreciate this for its directness; other students find it dry. You can learn more about it at Meltzer's blog, The Critical Reader, and see how it suits you. It's a relatively expensive bookconsidering it only covers one section ofthe SAT. The Critical Reader: The Ultimate Guide to SAT Grammar, 4th Edition Price:About $30 on Amazon Erica Meltzer's Ultimate Guide to SAT Grammarclearly articulates the important grammar rules you'll need to know for the SAT Writing section and does a fantastic job getting you used to how the section will look and what kinds of questions you'll be asked on test day. Pros The questions are realistic and resemble those on the SAT Writing section. Like questions on the SAT, they are all connected to the context of a longer passage. Itbreaks down critical skills and grammar rules so you can study them individually. By learning the rules of grammar and usage, you'll be able to apply them to practice problems. Rather than just choosing an answer that sounds right, Meltzer's book will teach you all the rules you absolutely must know to get a good SAT Writing score. Cons While this book is helpful in the way it breaks the section down by skill and grammar rule, the questions on the real SATwill be in random order. This resource is useful for learning and drilling the rules, but you also want to take practice tests to make sure you can easily identify the grammar rule, even when it's not clearly laid out and labeled for you. There isn't a frequency guide, so it's hard to know which rules to prioritize over others. It's written in a similar style to her SAT Reading book, which some students might find dry. Like Meltzer's SAT Reading book, it's somewhat costly at around $30. This concludes our list of the best SAT prep books. Now, since this guide is meant to help you streamline your studying,let's discuss how you can best use these books to prep for the SAT and achieve your target scores. Key Tips for Studying With SAT Prep Books There are a lot of options when it comes to studying for the SAT from books. Rather than reading them cover to cover, you would be better served coming up with a plan and breaking each book down into smaller, manageable goals. I recommend using an official College Board practice testto give yourself a pre-testandgain a sense of your starting level, or baseline score. Use its answer key to score it and then analyze your results to determine what areas of the test you need to focus on in your prep. You could also save one of the tests to take right before you take the official SAT so you can gain a sense of how much you've improved. As mentioned, the other tests could be used as benchmarks along the way to gauge your progress and re-adjust your study plan if needed. A comprehensive book such as Kallis' or Barron's could be used alongside a subject-specific book, such as Steve Warner's Math book and Erica Meltzer's Reading and Writing guides. Depending on your goals and needs, you candecide how much time to devote to each subject to get the most out of your studying. There's a lot of room here to customize your study plan to your own strengths, weaknesses, and goals. This requires a good deal of planning and self-discipline to actually stick to your plan. You'll also benefit from reflecting on what works best for you in terms of maintaining interest, retaining information, and staying organized. If this sounds like a lot of "study prep" before you even get to your test prep, you might benefit from exploring SAT prep options beyond using an SAT book list. Time to explore! Final Tip: Explore Your SAT Prep Options The SAT is a unique test. Doing well in math and English class doesn't necessarily guarantee you a high score on SAT Math or Reading. Prep is a critical component of getting a high score for most students,which the College Board is finally acknowledgingwith its efforts to provide free online practice materials. Since youprobably don't have time to waste, you want to make the most of your prep time. If you're taking time out of your schedule to study, you should see results. PrepScholar's online SAT program was developed with these goals in mind. It retains the quality of content review, practical strategies, and SAT practice questions while adding those elements of accountability and customization. It also ensures you're getting the most out of your prep and aren't wasting time on material you already know or that won't help you on the SAT. With that same goal in mind, we've made available a number of in-depth strategy guides for the SAT, which we're adding to all the time. Here are some of our most popular guides: How to Get a Perfect 1600 SAT Score, by a 2400 Expert Full Scorer How to Get 800 on SAT Reading: 11 Strategies by a Perfect Scorer How to Get 800 on SAT Writing: 9 Strategies From a Perfect Scorer How to Get 800 on SAT Math, by a Perfect Scorer How Long Should I Study for the SAT? 6-Step Guide Should You Guess on the SAT? 6 Guessing Strategies The 21 Critical SAT Math Formulas You MUST Know The Complete Guide to SAT Grammar Rules SAT EssayPrompts: The Complete List The Best Way to Review Your Mistakes for the SAT The recommended SAT prep books can be very useful in getting you ready, but they can also feel overwhelming and repetitive,not to mention expensive. Take the time to explore your optionswhile also learning about the SAT from high-quality online resourcesand our detailed guides. If you're putting in the time to prep for the SAT, make sure that you'reseeing results and enjoying the process along the way! What's Next? Before delving into content and strategies, you should familiarize yourself with exactly what's on the SAT. Learn all about theReading, Writing, and Math sections in our individual guides. Also, read ourcomplete guide to the SATto learn more about the test overall. An important part of your study schedule is knowing exactly when you plan to take the SAT. Read all about how to choose your test dates. Did you know a lot of colleges superscore the SAT, meaning they take your highest section scores across all dates? Learn how you can use this policy to your advantage and build up your scores across different test dates. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points?We have the industry's leading SAT prep program. Built by Harvard grads and SAT full scorers, the program learns your strengths and weaknesses through advanced statistics, then customizes your prep program to you so you get the most effective prep possible. Check out our 5-day free trial today:
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Price Analysis for the Navigation System - Essay Example For a cost to be said to be allowable, it has to be reasonable, allocable and comply with the terms of contract. The cost has to be reasonable in the sense that, the government buyers do not feel like they are being over-charged for the goods or services being offered by the company. The cost has also to lie within what the government would wish its citizens charged for the same (CCH Incorporated, 2007). Another type of cost to be determined is the variable cost which is a contrast of fixed cost. With the former, any variation in the expenses incurred will result in a corresponding increase in the output. However, with the former, the variation resulting from the incurred expenses does not affect the output. In the determination of the variable cost; that is after the completion of the start-up phase of a company, one has to bear in mind the costs relating to packaging, raw materials and the labour that is directly involved in the manufacturing process of the company. The total variable cost can be determined by getting the product of total cost per unit of output and total quantity of output. The semi-variable cost, which is also referred to as mixed cost, include both the variable and fixed rates. Electricity is considered to be the most common variable cost especially in the manufacturing companies. Cost analysis is very important to help one determine how to price a given commodity from a particular supplier. Before performing price analysis, there is need to compare competitive bids. This can be achieved through comparing several suppliers of a given similar commodity then at the end of the day, the average of the costs one has obtained can be very useful in helping him/her determine the price of a given good. Despite the fact that the above method is regarded as the best one when it comes to price analysis, there other methods which include prices set by law and regulation, comparison of a published price list,
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Computer Science - Essay Example This original movement raised out of the hard work of a multiplicity of people who contracted with software engineering process in the 1990s, found them deficient, and looked for an innovative procedure to software development (Abrahamsson et al., 2002). The majority of the ideas were not bright; undoubtedly a lot of people thought that a great deal of successful software had been constructed that technique for an extended time. There was, though, an observation that these thoughts had been muffled and not been pleasured perilously adequate, mainly by people paying attention in software development (Ambler et al., 2007). Agile software engineering methodologies are additional humanistic and collaborative practice to software engineering it is also acknowledged as agilism, which supports individuals and associations over actions and tools, implementation software over broad documentation, client relationship in overload of agreement negotiation, and reacting to transform over followin g a plan (Ambler et al., 2007). Primarily, all agile techniques support frequent rearrangement of development objectives with the requirements and vision of the client. The evolutionary development of agile software engineering technique holds constant client collaboration to support the manufacture of a progressively developing product (Abrahamsson et al., 2002). This research is going to elaborate the agile software engineering methodologies. Here I will also investigate its basic difference from the traditional software engineering. Here my basic aim is to investigate the features those make this paradigm a vital need for the contemporary software engineering. Agile software engineering and Software Development is one response to the altering situation of the information technology region. A number of software project managers and developers acknowledged their agile procedures in corresponding. A significant date for the agile society was in
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Capital Punishment I recently read an article from the ACLU, written by Adam Bedau. It explained, quite eloquently, that for society to execute a murderer made society no better than the murderer himself. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"The executioner is no better than the criminal.Ã¢â¬ I was impressed by this moral stance, but I was surprised to read that he failed to apply this logic consistently. For example, the he went on to argue that life imprisonment would be a more appropriate penalty for murder than death. Using this ACLU logic, it appears that for our society to lock someone in a room against his will and not free him for a considerable length of time makes our society no better than the everyday kidnapper. But if an individual locked another up against his will, wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t the ACLU view this as kidnapping. Being from the Methodist faith I found this argument somewhat difficult. For in the Bible there is a scripture that states, Ã¢â¬Å"an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.Ã¢â¬ I presume the ACLU would agree that beatings or torture are also unacceptable forms of punishment for crimes. They seem to be inhumane. Yet in Eastern cultures, if one steals something, they lose a finger or two and sometimes an entire hand depending on the severity of the crime. This seems to be reason enough not to steal, as in these cultures there is a very low theft rate. Maybe the ACLU would find a monetary fine a more appropriate punishment? For society to take money away from someone against his will without giving him any tangible goods in return would make society a thief. Of course, the Bedau also explains that capital punishment brutalizes society, leading to even more murders. If we, as a society, adopt this no-punishment position, it logically follows that there would be less crime. Once criminals realized that no matter what they did, no fellow citizen would lift a finger to stop them, why, theyÃ¢â¬â¢d just be so overcome with the generosity of their neighbors tha t theyÃ¢â¬â¢d naturally be inclined to become upstanding, productive citizens.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
The pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) represent a spectrum of difficulties in socialization, communication, and behavior. Autism is the best recognized and most frequently occurring form of a group of the PDDs. Because most of the research in areas related to communication has been done on autism, we will focus here on this particular PDD. However, we should be aware that autism is probably not the most common disorder on this spectrum. Other types of PDDs include RettÃ¢â¬â¢s Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, AspergerÃ¢â¬â¢s Disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, or PDDNOS (Twachtman-Cullen 1998). This work will also discuss the distinctive features of AspergerÃ¢â¬â¢s syndrome, which is believed to be genetically related to autism. Much of what can be said about certain features of autism and PDDNOS applies to other forms of non-autistic PDD. The goal of this research is to provide a framework for understanding cognitive development in children with PDDs. The study will cover criteria for early PDDs diagnosis. The best-known type of PDDs is autistic disorder (variously called autism or infantile autism). The symptoms of autistic disorder typically increase gradually through the childÃ¢â¬â¢s second year, reach a peak between 2 and 4 years of age, and then show some improvement. Young children with greater cognitive ability who receive very early intensive intervention may show dramatic improvement at this age, whereas those who are more impaired will make more modest changes. Persons with autistic disorder exhibit major deficits in their ability to relate to others. The child with autistic disorder often appears content to dwell in a separate world, showing little empathic interest in parents or siblings. Unlike the normally developing baby, the child with autistic disorder may not raise his arms to be picked up or may stiffen in protest when his parents try to cuddle him. The childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of social interest may make some of these babies seem like Ã¢â¬Å"easy babiesÃ¢â¬ because they do not seek parental attention, and appear content to remain in their cribs, watching a mobile or staring at their hands. As they get older, such lack of demandingness is recognized for the relative indifference it actually reflects. The child with autistic disorder may not seek others for comfort when she is hurt or upset, finding little consolation in the gentle words and hugs that are so important to other children. Not only do the children not ask for comfort, they typically are quite indifferent to other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s distress and do not seem to share their joy. A siblingÃ¢â¬â¢s tears or a parentÃ¢â¬â¢s happiness may elicit no response from the child with autistic disorder. Children with autistic disorder show little interest in the domestic imitation that most children enjoy. For example, unlike the normally developing child, the child with autistic disorder usually does not use his miniature mower to cut the grass like mommy or pretend to shave while he watches daddy. This lack of interest in imitation interferes with one of the primary channels for learning by young children: their ability to model adult behaviors and master them through role play. Social play is one of the primary activities of childhood. A few simple toys can create the backdrop for long hours of companionship. The child with autistic disorder does not know how to join this kind of play, sometimes completely ignoring other children, or perhaps standing on the sidelines, not comprehending how to become part of the group. Not surprisingly, given the range of social deficits they exhibit, children with autistic disorder are very impaired in their ability to make childhood friends. Within the communication domain, impairments are present in a number of linguistic and nonverbal areas, the most fundamental of which are pragmatics and semantics (i. . , the social usage and explicit or implicit meaning of language and gestures). Although linguistic capability varies greatly across the spectrum (from a total absence of speech to highly sophisticated and erudite language), significant impairments in pragmatics and semantics are universal among individuals with PDDs. They communicate primarily to express needs, desires, and preferences, rather than to convey sincere interest in others, or to share exp eriences, excitement, and feelings. Even among those possessing highly sophisticated and complex language, compliments, words of empathy, and expressions of joy in the good fortune of others are very rare. There is little reciprocity, mutuality, or shared purpose in discussions. In addition, speech and gestural forms of communication are poorly integrated, often resulting in awkward and uncomfortable social interactions. Implicit, subtle, and indirect communications are neither used nor perceived. Expressive communication tends to be explicit, direct, and concrete. During discussions, persons with autism often fail to prepare their speaking partners for conversational transitions, new topics, or personal associations. This can result in digressive, circumstantial, and tangential comments and discussions. It would appear as though persons with autism assume that others are implicitly aware of their experiences, viewpoints, attitudes, and thoughts. The fashion in which these deficits are manifest is influenced by age, overall cognitive level, temperament, and the presence of sensory or physical limitations. In toddlers, for example, impaired pragmatics may be manifested by significant limitations in reciprocal eye contact, responsive smiling, joint attention (mutual sharing of interests and excitement), and social imitative play. In addition, socially directed facial expressions, instrumental and emphatic gestures, and modulation of speech prosody (intonation, cadence, and rate) are rarely used to complement speech, communicate feelings and attitudes, or moderate social discourse. Among preschool children, impairments in symbolic functioning (e. g. , language) are accompanied by serious limitations in pretense (e. g. ymbolic, imaginative, creative, and interactive play). Pragmatic impairments among adolescents with AspergerÃ¢â¬â¢s syndrome may be manifested by one-sided, pedantic discussions, with no attempt to involve speaking partners by acknowledging and integrating their experiences, ideas, and viewpoints into conversations. Sincere attempts by others to engage in reciprocal conversations may be met with a lack of acknowledgment, annoyance, and disinterest. Comments or questions that are Ã¢â¬Å"snuck inÃ¢â¬ by the listener may be experienced as rude interruptions, prompting the directive, Ã¢â¬Å"Wait! IÃ¢â¬â¢m not done talking yetÃ¢â¬ (Bernabei, Camaioni & Levi 1998). The result is a monologue or lecture that often includes abrupt changes of topic and the introduction of unexplained personal associations. This lack of conversational reciprocity suggests that persons with AS and high-functioning autism inherently assume that the listener is implicitly aware of their own experiences, viewpoints, and intent. Because the relaying of factual and concrete information is the primary goal of Ã¢â¬Å"socialÃ¢â¬ dialog among those with ASD, the communication of subtle attitudes, viewpoints, and emotions (particularly secondary emotions, such as embarrassment, guilt, and envy) are largely irrelevant and superfluous. Therefore, emphatic gestures, informative facial expressions, and vocal modulation lack essential meaning for them. The result is that persons with autism generally disregard nonverbal cues and fail to incorporate them into their own discussions. Because this component of social communication often conveys essential information regarding feelings, attitudes, and opinions, an inability to identify, interpret, and produce nonverbal cues can have a highly detrimental effect on social interactions and relationships. Given these impairments, it is not surprising that verbal and nonverbal aspects of communication are poorly integrated, and that subtlety and nuance are rarely conveyed. Figurative and inferential language is another area of communication that is impaired in autism, largely due to a combination of deficits in abstract and conceptual thought, social reciprocity, and appreciation of the subtleties of social communication. Persons with ASD are highly literal and concrete in their language and thought processing, typically failing to understand metaphor, irony, sarcasm, and facetiousness. As a result, comments are often misinterpreted and discussions misunderstood. In addition, in an effort to remain true to the facts, comments and questions are often presented in an overly direct, straightforward, and Ã¢â¬Å"brutally honestÃ¢â¬ manner, lacking appropriate tact and sensitivity (Szatmari, Jones, Fisman, Tuff, Bartolucci, Mahoney 1995). This can cause embarrassment and distress for the listener and confusion for the speaker with AS. Both may become angry and resentful; the listener, because of emotional distress and perceived mistreatment; the speaker, because of the seemingly unjustifiable overreaction and a negative attitude displayed by the listener. From the perspective of the person with AS, the listener responded in a rude and ungrateful manner to comments that were intended to be informative, useful, and corrective. The emotional distress, embarrassment, and attack on self-esteem experienced by the listener are relatively foreign to the individual with autism. Interestingly, principles, rules, and codes of behavior can be interpreted in a highly concrete and rigid manner. This can result in insensitive and hurtful comments and behavior, because exceptions to the rule, adjustments to unexpected social contingencies, and appreciation for the spirit (not simply the letter) of the law are relatively foreign to those with autism. There is little awareness that rigid adherence to unavoidably flawed rules can result in a situation that is antithetical to the underlying intent of the rule itself. One of the dinning features of autism and AspergerÃ¢â¬â¢s syndrome is that of rigidity and inflexibility in response to minor change and transition in the environment and daily routines. This insistence on sameness and invariance can be highly impairing, because the precipitants of these reactions often are of little social significance and do not disturb the smooth functioning of the social world. It is as though persons with autism depend on these inanimate markers of space and time because the social priorities that typically direct schedules and routines have little meaning and significance for them. AspergerÃ¢â¬â¢s Syndrome has been associated with cognitive strength since Hans Asperger first described the disorder in the 1940s. When he wrote of children who sounded like Ã¢â¬Å"little professors,Ã¢â¬ Dr. Asperger (1944/1991) was describing not only their pedantic tone but also their cognitive abilities. The assumption of adequate cognitive skill was reiterated when the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) stated that individuals with AspergerÃ¢â¬â¢s Syndrome show Ã¢â¬Å"no clinically significant delay in cognitive developmentÃ¢â¬ (Willey 2001). AspergerÃ¢â¬â¢s syndrome (AS) was added as a new Ã¢â¬Å"officialÃ¢â¬ diagnosis when DSMIV and ICD-10 were published. In the past, children with AS were sometimes referred to as having schizoid personality, or schizotypal personality, and PDD, NOS. It is now recognized as distinct from autism. AS differs from autism in a number of key ways: first, children with AS may not be detected as early because they may have no delays in language, or only mild delays. In fact, it is usually not until parents notice that their childÃ¢â¬â¢s use of language is unusual, or their childÃ¢â¬â¢s play is also unusual, that concern sets in. Unlike autism, where the vast majority of children also experience some degree of mental retardation, children (and adults) with AS are rarely mentally retarded although many have low-average intelligence. Children with AS are sometimes described as Ã¢â¬Å"active, but oddÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â not avoiding others the way autistic children often do, but relating in a more narrow way, usually centering activity around their own needs and peculiar interests. In fact, having one or more areas of narrow, encompassing interest is highly characteristic of those with AS. Parents often ask whether AS is the same thing as Ã¢â¬Å"high-functioning autism. Research studies have addressed this question, and the answer is Ã¢â¬Å"noÃ¢â¬ (Fombonne, Simmons, Ford, Meltzer & Goodman 2001). One main difference is that children with AS tend to have fairly comparable verbal and nonverbal levels of intelligence, while higher functioning (that is, less cognitively impaired) autistic children tend to have nonverbal IQs that are markedly higher than their verbal IQs. Another key feature of AS is the presence of intense, preoccupying interests that generally are unusual in nature and highly restricted and narrow in scope and breadth. An impressive store of factual knowledge is accrued on relatively esoteric topics; however, this knowledge is rarely utilized for functional, socially meaningful purposes. Rather, factual knowledge is pursued for its own intrinsic value to the AS individual. In addition, children and adults with AS tend to be physically awkward, uncoordinated, and poor in judging visual-spatial perspective (often failing to maintain comfortable interpersonal space during social interactions). With regard to neuropsychological functioning, verbal abilities are generally much better developed than are nonverbal abilities (e. . , perceptualmotor, visual-spatial). In a majority of cases impairments are present in executive functions, including working memory, organization, and cognitive-set flexibility. Although children with AS are thought to show no general cognitive delay, there is actually a great deal of variability in the specific abilities of individuals. In spite of mass media suggestions that individuals with AS grow up to be scientists or software engineers, we do not yet have data to support this connection. For most children, the PDDs last a lifetime. Although early intervention for many young children with autistic disorder, AsperegerÃ¢â¬â¢s disorder, and PDDNOS has produced major developmental changes, the technology has not yet reached the point where the majority of children make the degree of change that allows them to blend imperceptibly into their peer group. As a result, although most children with PDDs benefit in important ways from treatment, many still become adults with PDDs or some significant residuals of PDDs. There are no details of what causes PDDs. There appears to be a genetic contribution to at least some kinds of autistic disorder. For example, Fragile X syndrome is a chromosomal disorder than long has been linked to mental retardation and more recently has been shown to be related to autistic disorder. This disorder gets its name from a narrowing near the end of the long arm of the X chromosome that sometimes makes the tip fragile. Fragile X syndrome shows an X-linked (sex gene-linked) recessive pattern of inheritance. As a result, this disorder typically is transmitted to boys by their mothers. Fragile X syndrome accounts for a small but significant number of boys diagnosed with autistic disorder. General support for the notion that the symptoms of autistic disorder reflect underlying physiological dysfunction comes from research showing that autistic disorder occurs more often than would be predicted by chance among children whose mothers had German measles during pregnancy, that these children experienced a higher than expected rate of problems during pregnancy or birth, and that they are at greater risk for seizures than other children. Findings such as these raise important questions about where in the brain abnormalities may occur and how these neurochemical, biochemical, or neurological factors may be linked specifically to the development of the language, social, affective, and behavioral symptoms that characterize autistic disorder and the other PDDs. The process of accurate diagnosis and classification is an essential endeavor in medicine, because it is key to ensuring validity and reliability, enabling etiological research, and identifying effective methods of treatment. Although ASDs are not medical illnesses in the classical sense, they do result from neurodevelopmental abnormalities that affect social, communicative, and behavioral functioning in fundamental ways. The autism is not a unitary condition with a single etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and treatment approach; rather, it is a group of related conditions that share many clinical features and underlying social-communicative impairments. The fundamental purpose of arriving at an accurate diagnosis is to promote meaningful research that will eventually lead to effective treatment and an ultimate cure. Accurate diagnosis also enables investigators, clinicians, educators, and parents to communicate clearly, effectively, and efficiently. Ideally, a valid and reliable diagnosis should convey a great deal of information about developmental strengths and weaknesses, short- and long-term prognosis, and treatments that are most likely to be effective. Both basic and applied research endeavors are enhanced by improvements in diagnosis and classification. During recent years, efforts have been made to identify ASD as early in life as possible, in order to begin implementing educational and treatment interventions; providing families with education, support, and community resources; and reducing the stress and anxiety families experience as a result of incorrect or misleading diagnoses. The importance of an early diagnosis is supported by findings of improved linguistic, cognitive, and adaptive functioning as a result of intensive early intervention. Studies have begun to appear in the research literature assessing the reliability and stability of autism diagnoses made during the early preschool years. Experienced clinical investigators have demonstrated that an accurate diagnosis of autism can be made in the second and third years of life. However, accuracy depends on the completion of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary assessment, one that includes the use of standardized diagnostic instruments in conjunction with clinical expertise. Nonetheless, even among experienced clinicians and investigators, false positive and false negative diagnoses are sometimes made. Investigators have begun to examine clinical variables that may be predictive of treatment response and general prognosis. For example, Handleman & Harris (2001) found that preschool children with autism who exhibited low baseline levels of social avoidance experienced significantly more social and linguistic progress than did their high-avoidance counterparts following 6 months of intensive incidental teaching and pivotal response training (provided in an inclusive setting). A complementary strategy for assessing the validity of AS is to examine the pattern of associated symptomatology. In this regard, a recent study investigated emotional and behavioral disturbance (psychopathology) in 4 to 18-year-olds with HFA and AS. The Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC), an informant-based instrument completed by parents and teachers, was used to assess psychopathology. The DBC contains the following six subscales: disruptive, self-absorbed, communication disturbance, anxiety, antisocial, and autistic relating. Children and adolescents with AS exhibited high levels of psychopathology, particularly disruptive behavior, anxiety, and problems with social relationships. The best documented approach to the treatment of people with PDDs is a form of behavior therapy called applied behavior analysis. Since the mid-1960s, when Ivar Lovaas and his colleagues demonstrated that children with autism responded to carefully planned applied behavior analytic techniques, there has been extensive research on the use of these methods to treat the PDDs, especially for autistic disorder, AspergerÃ¢â¬â¢s disorder, and PDDNOS (Durand 1990). Three decades of research have contributed to the development of a substantial array of specific behavioral treatment techniques and of documentation to support the efficacy of these methods in treatment of PDDs. This research also has demonstrated the essential role that parents can play in the treatment of their children by providing consistency of intervention between home and school, or even in some cases as the childÃ¢â¬â¢s primary therapist.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Research Paper Topics on Psychology Human being is built in such a way that he or she continuously analyzes his feelings, emotions and reactions to external factors. With this statement in mind, we could conclude that all the individuals are to some extent psychologists of their own mind. No one can affect our behaviour and mental processes, but our own perception and self-analysis. The role of psychologist, on the other hand, is to help in gathering valuable data about various behavioural patterns among group of individuals and generalize this information for conceptual use and future reference. One of the interesting aspects of psychology science is gestures. It is difficult to completely understand the person without taking into account his/her body language. It seems to be almost impossible to understand human habits and actions by gestures. While voice and speech provide psychologists with extensive knowledge through personal interpretation, emotions, tones and other attributes of the speech analysis, gestures are much more delicate in the message they can pass to the opponent. Benefits that one can get from understanding the meaning of various gestures and reading them in different people are countless. First and the biggest, from my point of view, is the ability to identify a lie. Apart from that, gestures can provide the opponent with the information on the feelings, hidden emotions, comfort level and other elements of the communication process. In spite of the fact that gesture science is much younger than psychology as a whole, it has already received significant attention in scientific literature and still has a great room for investigation. The purpose of this research paper is to analyse in practice gestures of anger and fear and provide extensive analysis of the set of movements that in conceptual terms represent the above two feelings.